1. Functional diversification
Through a large number of on-site assembly operations, the on-site cast-in-situ operation is greatly reduced and the labor productivity can be significantly improved. From the functional point of view, first of all, the exterior wall design of prefabricated buildings has the function of thermal insulation, which can make residents feel warm in winter and cool in summer, save the use times of air conditioning and reduce air pollution; Secondly, the sealing function of walls, doors and windows of prefabricated buildings is good, and the sound insulation effect is good; Third, the fire prevention and seismic performance are good. The special materials of prefabricated buildings can provide people with a safe and comfortable living environment. They are not easy to spontaneous combustion in dry weather. There will be no cracks, yellowing and other problems in long-term use. The seismic performance of prefabricated buildings is good.
2 construction assembly
A large number of components of prefabricated buildings are produced and processed by the factory. For civil buildings, decoration integrated design, construction and other procedures, the decoration can be completed in the factory with the main construction, which not only ensures the decoration quality, but also speeds up the overall progress of the project. Because the weight of the prefabricated building is lighter than the traditional building, as long as the basic structural drawing is drawn, it can be constructed directly on the construction site. Because its construction speed is very fast, the work efficiency is also improved a lot.
3 design diversification
Prefabricated buildings are more in line with the requirements of green buildings, and the design standardization and management informatization are higher. With the digital management of the factory, the cost performance of the whole prefabricated building will be higher and higher. Moreover, most of the current buildings are designed based on the fixed pattern in the room, and the overall application of the house is not very flexible, but the prefabricated building can avoid such shortcomings. Its main houses can be divided into sizes and configured according to the requirements of residents.
Prefabricated building is the main form, product and carrier of building industrialization. It has the characteristics of industrialization, assembly, standardization and integrated decoration. It is an industrialized building assembled by building parts, building components, structural components and electromechanical equipment in a reliable connection. Prefabricated concrete structure is the main structural form of prefabricated buildings in China.
(1) The main components are prefabricated. A large number of building parts and components are prefabricated by workshop production. The planarized construction method combined with advanced computer calculation can replace the three-dimensional crossing operation of cast-in-situ structure, and high-precision prefabricated components with error controlled within a few millimeters can be manufactured. Based on the strong compatibility of concrete materials, a wide variety of products can be produced by the prefabrication industry
(2) Most prefabricated components adopt the integrated manufacturing process of integrating waterproof, thermal insulation and structure with perfect performance, which reduces material loss and construction process. At the same time, the pouring, curing and storage of prefabricated components are carried out in the factory, which is less affected by the weather and is conducive to winter construction. During the production and storage of the factory, harmful substances in building materials are released, and the prefabricated building will not cause harm to human body after completion.
(3) After the prefabrication of the structure and building components of the prefabricated building, it will be transported to the construction site and assembled by mechanized hoisting. Concurrent engineering can be adopted in the construction period. While the design institute draws some or all component fabrication drawings, the prefabricated component manufacturer can manufacture, store, deliver and transport components, while the construction of pile works, foundation and underground works on site can also be completed at the same time. The hoisting process and prefabricated component production process can be carried out simultaneously with the construction of various disciplines on site. In addition, the assembly building construction method is changed to factory production because it no longer follows the traditional operation surface process, which plays a role in reducing the operation surface construction process and reducing the construction difficulty, greatly improving the labor efficiency of project construction and greatly shortening the project construction week.
(4) High requirements for setting out and surveying accuracy and reserved hole position. Due to factory production, the size of components cannot be changed after prefabrication. If the setting out size is too small, the prefabricated components cannot be installed, and if it is too large, the joint will be too large. The elevation measurement also needs to be more accurate. If the elevation of the shear wall is not well controlled, the laminated plate can not be installed smoothly, or the gap between the shear wall and the plate is too large, and the formwork needs to be re-erected. When the prefabricated concrete structure is reserved and embedded, the position and size of the hole must be accurate, otherwise the re slotting and hole opening will increase the difficulty of construction and even affect the structural safety.